Ophthalmic Preparation Main Classifications

1. Drops
Ophthalmic Solution
Ophthalmic Suspension
Ophthalmic emulsion

2. Eye Lotion

3. Eye Ointments

4. Eye Irrigation Solution
Use to wash the eye Cavity during the surgery

5. Intra- Occur Injection

6. Eye Implants
Deposit the device under and that device release a drug for a long period.

7. Contact lens solution
All eye preparation should be “Sterile.”

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Eye drops


Eye drops are sterile Solution, Suspension or Emulation of active drugs. They always contain a Preservative.
Following Ingredients are possible to be present in eye drop formulation.

1. A Drug
2. Preservative
3. PH adjusting agents
These drugs in eye drops should cross Cornea of the eye to give the effect. The Cornea is a lipid by layer. Only un-ionized molecule Cross Cornea. So, pH adjusting and maintenance is important to keep during molecule un-ionized.

4. A buffer
5. Tonicity adjusting agent
Most eye drops are prepared as isotonic to adjust the tonicity.

6. Viscosity enhancing agents
7. Anti-Oxidants
8. A suitable Medium
A Water

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The preservative in eye drops


1. Phenylmercuric nitrate
2. Benzalkonium chloride
3. Thiomersal
4. Chlorocresol


These are not suitable for oral and adjustable preparation.


Sterilization of Eye drops


Sterile by grammar radiation. The product pack in the final Container is subjected to the process. 

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Period of usage of an eye drops


1. Regular use eye drop can be used for 4 weeks after the first Opening
2. In a Hospital word 7 days
3. After an eye surgery a fresh on
4. O.P.D one days


How to use and eye drops properly


1. Get the help of another person
2. Wash the hand
3. Shake the proper bottle and open the bottle
4. Tilt the head slightly backwards 
5. Full lower eye in down whole looking up
6. Put one drop in to lower conjunctival sac and slowly close the eye if another drop is to be added wait about 5 minutes then clause the bottle


Never touch dropper with any surface.

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Eye Ointments


Collapsible tube


Sterile 
Always supply in a collapsible tube
Maximum weight is 5g
There is a special Nozzle


How to use


Put about 1cm of ointment into the lower conjunctival sac close the eye and roll the eyeball.


When eye ointment is used for the first time discard the first 1cm of ointment as it may be to dry.

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Eye Lotions


Always solution
Used to wash the eye
Supply beam bottle, Maximum volume 200ml with an eyecup to wash the eye.

By RMG Perera

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